Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a medical term used to describe any unusual or irregular bleeding that occurs from the uterus and is not part of a woman's normal menstrual cycle. This condition can encompass a range of menstrual irregularities, including heavy bleeding (menorrhagia), prolonged periods, frequent or unpredictable bleeding, and spotting between periods. AUB can be disruptive to a woman's daily life, impact her quality of life, and may be a sign of an underlying health issue.
AUB can have various causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural abnormalities in the uterus or cervix, uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths), polyps (small growths on the uterine lining), endometriosis (a condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus), and certain medical conditions such as thyroid disorders or bleeding disorders. Changes in hormone levels during perimenopause or as a result of certain medications can also contribute to AUB. Additionally, pregnancy complications, such as miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, can cause abnormal bleeding.
Diagnosing the underlying cause of AUB typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, and possibly diagnostic tests such as blood tests, pelvic ultrasound, or hysteroscopy (a procedure to examine the inside of the uterus). Treatment for AUB varies depending on the cause and severity. It may involve hormonal therapies to regulate the menstrual cycle, non-hormonal medications to control bleeding, minimally invasive procedures to remove polyps or fibroids, or, in some cases, surgery to address structural issues. The approach to treatment is individualized based on the woman's specific situation and her goals for managing the abnormal bleeding.
In conclusion, abnormal uterine bleeding refers to irregular and disruptive bleeding patterns that deviate from a woman's normal menstrual cycle. It can have a range of causes, including hormonal imbalances, structural issues, and underlying medical conditions. Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important to address the underlying cause of AUB, alleviate symptoms, and improve the woman's overall health and well-being. If you experience abnormal uterine bleeding, it's important to consult a healthcare provider for a proper evaluation and personalized treatment plan.